From: DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders(external link) verywellmind.com
The DSM 5 recognizes substance-related disorders resulting from the use of 10 separate classes of drugs: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (phencyclidine or similarly acting arylcyclohexylamines, and other hallucinogens, such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants (including amphetamine-type substances, cocaine, and other stimulants); tobacco; and other or unknown substances.
The activation of the brain’s reward system is central to problems arising from drug use; the rewarding feeling that people experience as a result of taking drugs may be so profound that they neglect other normal activities in favour of taking the drug. While the pharmacological mechanisms for each class of drug are different, the activation of the reward system is similar across substances in producing feelings of pleasure or euphoria, which is often referred to as a “high.”
The DSM-5 recognizes that people are not all automatically or equally vulnerable to developing substance-related disorders and that some people have lower levels of self-control that predispose them to develop problems if they're exposed to drugs.
There are two groups of substance-related disorders: substance-use disorders and substance-induced disorders.
- Substance-use disorders are patterns of symptoms resulting from the use of a substance that you continue to take, despite experiencing problems as a result.
- Substance-induced disorders, including intoxication, withdrawal, and other substance/medication-induced mental disorders, are detailed alongside substance use disorders.