There are many reasons why your testicles may develop a lump or become swollen.
The most common causes include:
- enlarged veins within the scrotum or a build-up of fluid around the testicle
- cysts caused by a collection of fluid in the epididymis (a coiled tube that lies beside each testicle and stores and carries sperm)
- inflammation of the epididymis and testicles, often caused by infection – see epididymo-orchitis
- a hernia – where fatty tissue or a part of your bowel pokes through into your groin.
A less common but more serious cause could be testicular cancer. You should always see a doctor if you notice any lumps or swelling in your testicles. If it is painful, seek advice urgently.
See your doctor if you have:
- Sudden, unbearable pain in your testicles or abdomen (tummy) see your doctor immediately. This could be a sign that your testicle has become twisted, which needs urgent hospital treatment.
- A lump in your testicles – this can be a sign of testicular cancer. and it's easier to treat if it’s found early.
- Red or swollen testicles.
- A change in the shape or feel of your testicles.
- An ongoing ache, pain or discomfort in your testicles.